Cocoa bean and cacao pod borer
The larvae then crawl to a pod or lower themselves on a silken thread to dried leaves on the ground, or to weeds, spin an oval brown cocoon and pupate Photo 2.
Symptoms of black pod disease of cocoa
An investigation on the use of host plant resistance and crop manipulation in the management of the cocoa pod borer. Saripah 18 revealed that the effectiveness of CBA in controlling CPB almost similar with insecticides and suggesting to distribute CBA population using artificial nests spread evenly on each cacao tree and broken nests should be replaced regularly for better results of CPB control. The application of biological agents and pruning which reducing the damage of cocoa beans Table 2 , indicates that the necessity of an integrated management for controlling CPB at the cocoa plantation. It indicates that this fungus is a promising biological agent for CPB. CFRH must be seen as a form of pest control, not just as more labour-intensive harvesting, and may require compensatory management procedures. An alternative could be to employ normal piece-rate harvesting gangs, followed through the fields by specialized flat-rate-payment 'clean-up' gangs. In general, germplasm should be obtained from an intermediate quarantine station where pathogen testing is possible. None of these has established successfully; general predation was cited as a possible explanation for the failure of these introductions.
Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae. No practical control effort was made using indigenous pupal parasites, as there was no indication of significant parasitism. The effectiveness of this entomopathogen in the field depends on some factors, e.
Ant interactions with pests explained the yield gap. Sometimes the larvae eat the seed coat of the cotyledons, the first leaves. South and Southeast Asia, Oceania.
More importantly, however, there was a fear that further races could develop or appear which would require frequent changes of pheromone components, adding to costs and limiting efficacy. Interestingly, both of the pest controlling methods only showed a significant result when they were applied simultaneously.
The relationship between log of spores concentration of P.
Cocoa pests and diseases pdf
For information on economic threshold levels, see Control. However, in rambutan, there are records of the pest also damaging leaves and young stems. Mechanical Control Sleeving The idea of sleeving pods with bags of plastic or other materials to prevent egg laying originated in Indonesia. They also found that B. Harvesting Rampasan In the early days of the 20th century Roepke considered rampasan to be the only feasible control method. The pheromones were shown to catch moths as far as metres from infested cocoa, and so the size of both treated and untreated areas needed to be very large to give good comparisons. However, considerable effort by Lim and his colleagues demonstrated the presence of a parasitic wasp Trichogrammatoidea sp. Biological Control Dutch entomologists in the early part of the 20th century advocated that ants the large black ant, Dolichoderus sp. The occurrence of B. Controlling Aphis craccivora Koch using B.
Applications at the peak crop did not provide good returns, as C. Impact Top of page C. Present results show that the damage on cocoa pods decreased with application of B.
based on 100 review