Notes aims of the countries ww1
Notes aims of the countries ww1
Thus, for some historians, the Jewish census of represents a caesura in modern anti-Semitism , from which there is a direct line to the murder of the German and European Jewish populations during World War II. Such attempts to calm the situation were half-hearted and finally thwarted by the German military, which by now had taken control of the situation. The extraordinary economic upswing, which by had made Germany the leading export nation in the world, led the German bourgeois classes to believe that the Empire was more than entitled to an international political standing in line with its economic power and performance. Yet many broke down — only 21 made it to the front line. The Treaty required that Germany accept full responsibility for causing the war; make reparations to some Allied countries; surrender some of its territory to surrounding countries; surrender its African colonies; and limit the size of its military. Politicians and the military had given in to the demands of anti-Semitic groups, which had repeatedly attempted to prove that German Jews were avoiding their military service and national responsibility. They failed because the minimum terms acceptable to each side were incompatible. Nonetheless, the revolution that determined the last phase of the war and the transition to peace grew from hunger, general hopelessness, and the collapse of the traditional social and political contract between rulers and ruled. The debate in Germany was initiated by a radical memorandum from the leader of the nationalist Pan-German League , Heinrich Class , which demanded far-reaching annexations in Belgium and northern France as well as other territorial gains in western and eastern Europe. Despite the deployment of new military technologies neither side had succeeded in making a decisive breakthrough.
Yet many broke down — only 21 made it to the front line. British solders were rarely in the firing line in WW1.
Aspiring nationalities were promised their own homelands. On 9 November he announced the abdication of the Kaiser and simultaneously handed over the position of chancellor to the SDP politician Friedrich Ebert When the Bolsheviks balked at accepting these terms, the Germans resumed their military advance into Russia, which convinced the Bolshevik government to give up the war.
At the end ofLudendorff had unsuccessfully attempted to generate a new fighting spirit by introducing patriotic instruction into the armed forces, delivered by specially trained officers.
The Germans kept quiet about their war aims of dominating all of Europe, for they realized it would not have a wide appeal. The desire for peace among the majority of the population was too great, and revolution had begun to break out among the sailors of the Home Fleet and workers.
Russian war aims ww1
Ereignis, Wirkung, Nachwirkung, Munich , pp. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of , the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition , marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until the Eastern Front , by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory. But the upper and middle classes were over-represented and the numbers were far lower than the impression given by newspaper propaganda , which portrayed German youth as overwhelmed by the spirit of sacrifice. The more traditional roles of many women — in the household, in nursing and care professions, as agricultural workers — were seen as part of their patriotic duty and as a feminine contribution to the war, complementing but not challenging masculine roles. Some , men volunteered in Prussia alone in the first ten days of the war, of whom , were then officially drafted. At first, the conventional division of labour along gender lines worked reasonably well. The latter is largely a myth constructed at the time by the conservative press and perpetuated long afterwards including by the National Socialists after for political reasons. For example, Britain cut off all shipments of cotton to Germany, but at the same time subsidized the American cotton industry by large purchases, to make sure that the rural South supported the war effort.
But it was too late. Lenin took power in Russia. Germany did not lose the war because its armies were decisively beaten or diminished on the battlefields.
The student will actively reflect on their studied and help them gain a deeper understanding of what conditions were like for those involved.
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