Parkinsons disease research paper

parkinsons disease articles 2017

Cherkasova Jeffrey C. Difficulty with swallowing and chewing.

Parkinsons disease related disorders

Investigators discovered this reaction in the s when heroin addicts in California who had taken an illicit street drug contaminated with MPTP began to develop severe parkinsonism. Post-traumatic parkinsonism. This discovery, which showed that a toxic substance could damage the brain and produce parkinsonian symptoms, led to a dramatic breakthrough in Parkinson's research. Fortunately, there are many treatment options available for people with PD. A reversible form of parkinsonism sometimes results from use of certain drugs, such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol, which are typically prescribed for patients with psychiatric disorders. This slowing down of spontaneous and automatic movement is particularly frustrating because it may make simple tasks difficult. The four primary symptoms of PD are: Tremor. Almeria G. Legarda N. Tremor is rare in this type of parkinsonism, while dementia and difficulties with gait are common. Postural instability, or impaired balance, causes affected individuals to fall easily.

The loss of norepinephrine might explain several of the non-motor features seen in PD, including fatigue and abnormalities of blood pressure regulation. People with one or more close relatives who have PD have an increased risk of developing the disease themselves, but the total risk is still about 2 to 5 percent unless the family has a known gene mutation for the disease.

parkinsons disease journal pdf

One clear risk factor for PD is age. NPH can sometimes be treated by surgically implanting a CSF shunt that drains excess cerebrospinal fluid into the abdomen, where it is absorbed.

Researchers also hope that discovering genes will help identify new ways of treating PD. About half of all individuals with PD have speech difficulties that may be characterized as speaking too softly or in a monotone. Other still-unidentified environmental factors may also cause PD in genetically susceptible individuals.

This has potential implications for better understanding disease pathophysiology and the relevance of patient stratification in future clinical trials.

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